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Polycystic ovarian disease; symptoms, causes- Diagnosis of PCOD | Treatment of PCOD | PCOD exercise.

Polycystic ovarian disease; symptoms, causes- Diagnosis of PCOD |  Treatment of PCOD | PCOD exercise.

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In this Article we will discuss below points !!

  • What is PCOD? 
  • Is PCOD and PCOS are same ?
  • What are symptoms of PCOD? 
  • How does PCOD affect fertility? 
  • If I have PCOD, should I see a fertility doctor before trying to conceive? 
  • How is PCOS related to mental health?
  • How is PCOD diagnosed ? 
  • Can IVF or ISCI help a woman with PCOS get pregnant ?
  • Can PCOD lead cancer ?
  • Causes of PCOD ?
  • What to do on my own to lessen PCOD symptoms ?
  • Treatment for PCOD ?
  • Exercise to reduce PCOD problems ?


What is Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)?

     Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), also known as Polycystic Ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common condition affecting 5% to 10% of women in the age group 12–45 years. It is a problem in which a woman’s hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with menstrual periods and make it difficult for her to conceive. The principal features include no ovulation, irregular periods, acne. If not treated it can cause insulin resistant diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol leading to heart disease.

Is PCOD and PCOS are same ?


What is PCOD?

All women have two ovaries that release an egg alternately every month. The ovaries produce androgens or male hormones in minute quantities. PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) is a condition where the ovaries release a lot of immature or partially-mature eggs which eventually turn into cysts. Some of the common symptoms are abdominal weight gain, irregular periods, male pattern hair loss and infertility. In this condition, the ovaries usually become enlarged and secrete large amounts of androgens that can cause havoc with a woman’s fertility and her body. The best treatment for PCOD often looks at reducing the severity of such symptoms.


What is PCOS?

In women with PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome), the ovaries produce higher levels of androgen than usual, which interferes with development and release of the eggs. Some of the eggs develop into cysts, which are the little sacs filled with liquid. Instead of being released during ovulation, these cysts build up in the ovaries and at times even get enlarged.


What are symptoms of PCOD?

if you experience symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD ), they'll usually become apparent in your late teens or early 20s.

Not all women with PCOD will have all of the symptoms, and each symptom can vary from mild to severe. Some women only experience menstrual problems or are unable to conceive, or both.

Common symptoms of PCOD

  • irregular periods or no periods at all
  • difficulty getting pregnant (because of irregular ovulation or failure to ovulate)
    • excessive hair growth (hirsutism) – usually on the face, chest, back or buttocks
    • thinning hair and hair loss from the head
    • oily skin or acne
    • skin tags on the neck or armpits
    • patches of thick, darkened skin (acanthosis nigricans), particularly on the neck, groin, or underneath the breasts
    • weight gain or difficulty losing weight

                                    How does PCOD affect fertility?

People with PCOD have a hormonal imbalance that can lead to:

  • high levels of hormones called androgens
  • the formation of small, painless, fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries
  • thickening of the outer shell of the ovaries
  • high levels of insulin in your blood

These are all things that can interfere with ovulation. One sign that this is happening is irregular or missed periods.

Fertility problems

PCOD is one of the most common causes of female infertility. Many women discover they have PCOD when they're trying to get pregnant and are unsuccessful.

During each menstrual cycle, the ovaries release an egg (ovum) into the uterus (womb). This process is called ovulation and usually occurs once a month.

But women with PCOD often fail to ovulate or ovulate infrequently, which means they have irregular or absent periods and find it difficult to get pregnant.

Risks in later life

Having PCOD can increase your chances of developing other health problems in later life.

For example, women with PCOD are at increased risk of developing:

  • type 2 diabetes – a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high
  • depression and mood swings – because the symptoms of PCOD can affect your confidence and self-esteem
  • high blood pressure and high cholesterol – which can lead to heart disease and stroke
  • sleep apnoea – overweight women may also develop sleep apnoea, a condition that causes interrupted breathing during sleep

Women who have had absent or very irregular periods (fewer than 3 or 4 periods a year) for many years have a higher than average risk of developing cancer of the womb lining (endometrial cancer).

But the chance of getting endometrial cancer is still small and can be minimised using treatments to regulate periods, such as the contraceptive pill or an intrauterine system (IUS).

If I have PCOD should I see a fertility doctor before trying to conceive?

 If you are not ovulating regularly each month, it is best to seek the help of a specialist immediately. By taking medication and making lifestyle changes, regular ovulation can be induced, allowing for conception to occur.

Can IVF or ISCI help a woman with PCOS get pregnant?

Yes. These fertility treatments have helped many women with PCOS get pregnant and have babies. But not all women with PCOS will need IVF.  Most women with PCOS will conceive with fertility pills that cost around $30 without the need of expensive IVF treatments.

PCOS increases the risk of some types of cancer.

For instance, some research has shown that risk of cancer of the endometrium, the inside lining of the uterus, may be higher for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than it is for women without PCOS. Irregular periods, or a lack of periods, can cause the endometrium to build up and become thick. This thickening can lead to endometrial cancer

 


How is PCOD related to mental health?

Polycystic ovary syndrome or disease (PCOD) is a complex condition which impacts many aspects of a person’s health, including mental health. People who have been diagnosed with PCOS are about 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety and depression than people without PCOS. People with PCOS are also much more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression and those symptoms are more likely to be severe.

Most of the research on PCOS and mental health has focused on depression and anxiety, but it may also be associated with an increased risk of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar disorder, and eating disorders

Causes of PCOD

Researchers and health care providers know that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD), but do not know exactly what causes PCOD.

Because the symptoms of PCOD tend to run in families, the syndrome is probably caused, at least in part, by a change, or mutation, in one or more genes. Recent research conducted in 

animal models suggests that in some cases PCOD may be caused by genetic or chemical changes that occur in the womb.

PCOD likely results from a combination of causes, including genes and environmental factors.

 

How is PCOD or PCOS diagnosed?

here's no test to definitively diagnose PCOS. Your doctor is likely to start with a discussion of your medical history, including your menstrual periods and weight changes. A physical exam will include checking for signs of excess hair growth, insulin resistance and acne.

Your doctor might then recommend:

  • A pelvic exam. The doctor visually and manually inspects your reproductive organs for masses, growths or other abnormalities.
  • Blood tests. Your blood may be analysed to measure hormone levels. This testing can exclude possible causes of menstrual abnormalities or androgen excess that mimics PCOS. You might have additional blood testing to measure glucose tolerance and fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • An ultrasound. Your doctor checks the appearance of your ovaries and the thickness of the lining of your uterus. A wand like device (transducer) is placed in your vagina (transvaginal ultrasound). The transducer emits sound waves that are translated into images on a computer screen.

If you have a diagnosis of PCOS, your doctor might recommend additional tests for complications. Those tests can include:

  • Periodic checks of blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels
  • Screening for depression and anxiety
  • Screening for obstructive sleep apnea

What to do on my own to lessen PCOD symptoms ?

Reduce PCOD or PCOS symptoms by following ways

·        Maintain a healthy weight. Weight loss can reduce insulin and androgen levels and may restore ovulation.

·        Limit carbohydrates. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets might increase insulin levels.

·        Be active. Exercise helps lower blood sugar levels.


Exercises to reduce PCOD


CARDIO

Good for reducing insulin resistance, boosting fertility, stabilising mood

Moderate exercise like brisk walking, jogging, cycling or swimming are all great activities that can help with PCOS. This type of exercise increases your bodies sensitivity to insulin, which reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Doing 30 minutes or more a day can also help with weight management, symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as improving frequency of menstrual cycles and ovulation. And if you’re about to start IVF, regular light exercise can boost your reproductive success.

 

STRENGTH TRAINING

Good for reducing insulin resistance, increasing metabolic rate, improving body composition (more muscle and less fat tissue)

Bodyweight exercises like squats, push-ups, or tricep dips improve the function of insulin in your body, but can also boost your metabolism by building more muscle mass. Don’t worry though; you won’t bulk up unless you’re taking steroids! More muscle simply means burning more calories while exercising, but also throughout the day even at rest. Combining resistance moves with cardio exercise is the best way to ensure you’re building a lean body, achieving a healthy BMI, and reducing your risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes.

 

HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING

Good for increasing cardiovascular fitness and decreasing waist circumference

Intervals involve swapping between short bouts of high intensity work and lower intensity recovery. It’s a time efficient way of boosting your cardiovascular fitness, with extra benefits for PCOS. Going hard on the spin bike burns bucket-loads of calories, and reduces abdominal fat more effectively then say, a brisk walk. This can help you achieve a 5 – 10% weight loss, which studies show can decrease PCOS symptoms by reducing excess testosterone and improving insulin resistance.

 

CORE STRENGTH

Good for general well-being and injury prevention, preparing your body for pregnancy

Being above your ideal weight can cause lower back pain and poor posture, so including core training in your program is essential. These muscles support the spine and learning how to switch them on ensures you don’t injure yourself during exercise. Also if you’re trying to conceive, start training your pelvic floor muscles! These muscles are also part of your core and help prevent incontinence, boost sexual health, and improve pelvic stability to help support a healthy pregnancy. 

The most effective exercise is the one you keep up with, so choose something you enjoy! Seeking help from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist is a great way to guarantee you’re exercising right for your condition. They can provide a tailored exercise program as well as lifestyle advice and support to help you reach your health and well-being goals.

Yogasana for PCOD problems

Garland Pose (Malasana)

Malasana can strengthen the pelvic floor and abdominal core while opening the hips .This can benefit individuals with PCOS by increasing circulation and blood flow to the pelvic region, improving metabolism, and aiding digestion.




Bow Pose (Dhanurasana)

Dhanurasana may help relieve menstrual discomfort, stimulate reproductive organs, and regulate menstrual flow, “It increases circulation to the pelvic region, releases tension from abdominal organs, and also stretches the neck, shoulders, and legs muscles” . Overall, it may improve anxiety and decrease stress.



Butterfly or Bound Angle Pose (Supta Baddhakonasana)

This is an excellent restorative pose that completely supports the spine and back body, while gently releasing tension from the shoulders and chest, and opening the heart and the hips. This pose is appropriate for every level. To modify, use blankets or pillows under the shoulders, under the head at an incline, and under the thighs.

Sun Salutation (Surya namaskar) for PCOS



Surya Namaskar for PCOS is one of the best PCOS exercises at home.

Repeating the Sun Salutation pose for at least five times every day can help in weight loss, improve lipid profile, achieve a lower waist to hip ratio, and regulate the menstrual cycle. Surya Namaskar should be a part of your daily yoga for irregular periods, PCOS and PCOD.

Cobra Pose (Bhujangasana) for PCOS

The cobra pose stretches the abdominal organs and boosts ovarian functions. Hold this pose for about 10-15 seconds to get good results from one of the best exercises to cure PCOS.


Treatments for PCOD

 

Medications

To regulate your menstrual cycle, your doctor might recommend:

Combination birth control pills. Pills that contain estrogen and progestin decrease androgen production and regulate estrogen. Regulating your hormones can lower your risk of endometrial cancer and correct abnormal bleeding, excess hair growth and acne. Instead of pills, you might use a skin patch or vaginal ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin.

Progestin therapy: Taking progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to two months can regulate your periods and protect against endometrial cancer. Progestin therapy doesn't improve androgen levels and won't prevent pregnancy. The progestin-only minipill or progestin-containing intrauterine device is a better choice if you also wish to avoid pregnancy.

To help you ovulate, your doctor might recommend:

Clomiphene. This oral anti-estrogen medication  is taken during the first part of your menstrual cycle.

Letrozole (Femara). This breast cancer treatment can work to stimulate the ovaries.

Metformin. This oral medication for type 2 diabetes improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin levels. If you don't become pregnant using clomiphene, your doctor might recommend adding metformin. If you have prediabetes, metformin can also slow the progression to type 2 diabetes and help with weight loss.

Gonadotropins. These hormone medications are given by injection. To reduce excessive hair growth, your doctor might recommend:

Birth control pills. These pills decrease androgen production that can cause excessive hair growth.

Spironolactone (Aldactone). This medication blocks the effects of androgen on the skin. Spironolactone can cause birth defects, so effective contraception is required while taking this medication. It isn't recommended if you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant.

Eflornithine (Vaniqa). This cream can slow facial hair growth in women.

Electrolysis. A tiny needle is inserted into each hair follicle. The needle emits a pulse of electric current to damage and eventually destroy the follicle. You might need multiple treatments.

Disclaimer - Details mentioned in this article is subject to research and results and there is no direct connect with our website, Any exercise or medication/treatment, do not start by your own, please consultant sexologist. This article is just for you're knowledge.


Thanks
Sandhya R
Co-Founder 
PATFitness.com
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